Yifan Hu et al. at Zhejiang University studied the effects of alterations of high-frequency stimulation (HFS), both antidromic (A-HFS) and orthodromic (O-HFS) to hippocampal CA1 in rat. They used NeuroNexus A1x16-Poly2-5mm-50-177 probes to record across the layers of CA1, which enabled identification of pyramidal neurons targeted by A-HFS and O-HFS. The results of the study showed significant changes in evoked activity when an additional pulse is added to change the inter-pulse interval during HFS. They suggest that this supports new stimulation design for neuromodulation therapy.